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The Synergistic Approach to Immunity & Gut Health: The Power of Pre and Probiotics

The Synergistic Approach
to Immunity & Gut Health:
The Power of Pre and Probiotics

Prebiotics and probiotics complement each other in a synergistic action, fostering a harmonious equilibrium among the diverse bacteria that constitute various microbiotas within the human body. These microbiotas include those found in the mouth, on the skin, in the gut, and the vaginal region.
Prebiotics are indigestible fibers that serve as food for beneficial bacteria in the gut, while probiotics are live microorganisms that provide various health benefits when consumed in adequate amounts. When taken together, prebiotics help nourish and support the growth of probiotics, enhancing their effectiveness in maintaining a healthy balance of the microbiota they compose.
This synergistic combination can help improve the gut or vaginal flora balance, boost immune functions, and promote better digestive health.  

By blending prebiotics with various strains of probiotics, carefully and specifically selected for their benefits, Laboratoires Activa targets precise and optimal results, leveraging their synergistic benefits for effective action.

Activa Symbiotic

12 billion gastro-protected probiotics

  • Strengthens the immune system
  • Restore the intestinal flora after antibiotics, diarrhea, stress
  • Improves bowel motility and uptake of nutrients
  • Specific action of B. Infantis strain on Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • Improves Lactose tolerance

Activa Symbiotic Digest

Synergy of plants, prebiotics & probiotics

  • Prepares the bolus for a good assimilation in the intestine
  • Limits fermentation, nausea, spasms, and slow digestion-related problems
  • Promotes a good acid-base balance
  • Promotes the microbiota’s development
  • Reduces inflammation & regulates intestinal transit

Activa Symbiotic Gyn

10 billion gastro-protected microbriota

  • Contributes to vaginal PH balance
  • Activates more than 4 times the immunity of the vaginal mucosa
  • Prevents bacterial vaginal infections
  • Proven antifungal action
  • Avoids complications due to antibiotic treatment, proven benefits on vaginal yeast infection
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Activa for Women’s Lives

Activa for Women’s Lives

A woman’s life is rhythmed by her menstrual cycle from puberty to menopause.
Its reproductive system repeats a regular pattern dependent on her hormones to prepare her for a possible pregnancy.

Many inconveniences, or even illnesses, can be related to the menstrual cycle, pregnancy or menopause, and affect a woman’s life:

  • Menstruation disorders:
    premenstrual syndrome, painful menstruations
  • Endometriosis
  • Pregnancy disorders: morning sickness and other digestive issues, constipation, circulatory problems, hemorrhoids, hair loss, lower back pain, skin problems, neuro-psychic disorders…
  • Postpartum disorder: “baby blues”
  • Symptoms of perimenopause, then menopause:
    hot flashes, fatigue, irritability, sleep disturbances, loss of libido, vaginal dryness…

Today, every woman can live her feminine expression; her cycle, as comfortably as possible, regardless of age…using Activa natural solutions for women’s health.

The Feminine Sphere

Women by Activa

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Experiencing Well-Being during Menopause is now possible with Activa

Experiencing Well-Being during Menopause
is now possible with Activa

Menopause appears at the cessation of ovarian function and the final disappearance of ovulation and menstruation.
This cessation leads to a sharp drop in the production of estrogen and progesterone, which can induce various symptoms in women.
Scientifically, a woman is said to be menopausal when she has not had her period for one year. In France, women reach menopause at the average age of 51.

Menopause is divided into 3 phases:

1- Early menopause usually affects women before the age of 40  and is often related to surgery (i.e. removal of the ovaries), chemotherapy, radiotherapy…Perimenopause usually occurs around the age of 47. It is the period prior to menopause when progesterone becomes deficient while estrogen secretion is preserved.

2- Menopause: The average age of menopause is between 50 and 51 years
70% of women experience hot flashes, defined by shivering, trembling, feeling unwell, dizziness, sudden feeling of intense heat, palpitations, heavy sweating during the day but also at night. Discomforts such as vulvovaginal dryness, urinary problems, headaches, fatigue, insomnia, irritability, anxiety, and diffuse joint pain can also appear during this period.

3- Post Menopause with symptoms such as vaginal dryness, urinary incontinence, cystitis, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, increased risk of osteoporosis, loss of skin flexibility, hair loss, and weight gain.

Did You Know?

Experiencing Well-Being during Menopause is now possible!

 Laboratoires Activa has developed Activa Well Being Menopause, a natural complex, using the microgranule technology, designed to support women during this phase of their life, allowing them to restore comfort in their feminine expression.

Activa Menopause contains 9 active ingredients known for their action on menopause symptoms:

  • Compensates the estrogens drop
  • Stimulates the production of estrogen and progesterone,
  • Promotes hormonal balance
  • Proven action on the reduction of hot flashes,
  • Regulates the mood
  • Prevents ageing
  • Limits weight gain
  • Stimulates desire

Unique Advantage of microgranules encapsulation

  • High bioavailability with the protection of active ingredients and low oxidation
  • Optimal and controlled release
  • Better dispersion in the intestines
  • Better compliance with only 1 capsule a day outside of meals.

Laboratoires Activa is the french expert of phytovitality for more than 30 years. Discover the full range of products or contact us for more information.

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Standardisation of Proanthocyanidins in cranberry extracts, the durable solution for Urinary Tract Infections

Standardisation of Proanthocyanidins
in cranberry extracts, the durable solution for Urinary Tract Infections

Common facts about Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary tract infections (UTI) or cystitis are the most common bacterial infections affecting women aged between 20 to 50 years old. They occur 50 times more in women than in men.
Mainly because anatomy of the female urinary system greatly increases their risk. The female urethra, shorter than that of men, facilitates bacterial contamination of the bladder. Moreover, a “simple” intestinal or vaginal imbalance can create an ideal environment for the multiplication of bacteria which then easily reach the urethra.
Other factors such as sexual intercourse, pregnancy, oral contraception, fatigue, constipation, digestive candidiasis, etc. can contribute to Urinary tract infections.

What is a urinary infection?

A Urinary Tract Infection is defined by pain during urination (small tingling, discomfort or burning sensation as common symptoms) with or without fever. They are, most of the time, linked to an infection by the Escherichia Coli bacterium (E. coli). This bacteria colonises the urethra and moves to the bladder (cystitis). If not treated, the bacteria can move up to the kidney and the patient can develop pyelonephritis.

Activa Academy - Graphics - UTI - Ecoli

Recurrences: a real challenge

“Conventional” medicine can curb the infection with an antibiotic treatment, which if effective, will not prevent new occurrences. Frequent recurrences is one of the main problems of UTIs. While causing a Urinary Tract Infections, the bacterium Escherichia Coli colonises the inside of the uroepithelial cells (bladder cells) and sticks to the wall of the mucous membranes (forming P-fimbriae): it allows the bacteria to defend itself against our immune system and resist to antibiotics.
In 20% of cases, after treatment with antibiotics, the long coli filaments emerge from the cells to generate a new infectious episode. It will then escalate to more recurrences: 30% of these women will experience the third infection, then 80% of these a fourth, etc.

Preventing these recurrences is thus extremely important. Implementing some simple but healthy habits such as drinking enough water, urinating after intercourse, and avoiding urine retention will be of great help but may not be enough.

Standardisation of PACs in cranberry extracts, the durable solution

For decades, cranberry consumption has been highly recommended to fight Urinary Tract Infection. In 2004 the claim that Cranberry “Helps reduce the attachment of certain E.coli bacteria to the walls of the urinary tract” was officialized by the European AFSSA (1).
These berries owe their properties to several molecules they contain such as hippuric acid, fructose, vitamin C and proanthocyanidins. A 1984 study (2) demonstrated that these, like an antibiotic, interfere with the adhesion of bacteria to the uroepithelial cells of the bladder wall by modifying the chemical composition of urine.

Studies & trials on Standardised PAC in Cranberry extracts

Recent trials have also proven that the anti-adhesion effects of cranberries are “immediate” and long-lasting, since they are felt two hours after consumption and can last up to ten hours. It would at the same time reduce the risk of recurrent infections by 40%.

In 2001, research was made on women with urinary tract infections(3) over a period of 12 months, established that the risk of recurrence was reduced by 20% in patients treated with cranberry concentrate.
A Canadian study published in 2002, randomised and prospectively compared three treatments (4) (cranberry juice, cranberry tablets and placebo treatments): the tablets and juice reduced in the same way the number of urinary tract infections by about 15% per year compared with the placebo group.
Finally, it has also been observed that the bacterium E. coli, which causes 80 to 90% of these infections, is becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics, but that the antibacterial compounds in cranberries act on 80% of bacteria resistant to antibiotics.

 

Activa Academy - UTI - Quote

You should also know cranberries contain different types of flavonoids, powerful antioxidants that neutralise free radicals in the body and thus prevent the onset of cardiovascular diseases, certain cancers and various diseases related to ageing.

Supplements containing Cranberry extract are widely available and are the go-to solutions for managing Urinary Tract Infections. However, to be effective, standardisation of the concentration of proanthocyanidins (PACs) in the cranberry extract is essential. Standardisation guarantees the quantity of the active part of the ingredient: in this case the PAC’s.
Cranberries are rich in A-type PACs, a category of proanthocyanidins that has been shown to effectively have bacterial anti-adhesion benefits and help prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs). A multicentre randomized clinical trial (RCT) in adult women showed that a daily dose of 36 mg PACs or more provided an optimal antibacterial effect (5).

The Activa Solution to support the urinary sphere and prevent UTI recurrences

Most supplements do not use standardised extracts and do not disclose the concentration of PACs. A dosage below this recommendation will show to be less effective.

Laboratoires Activa Chrono Elimination is designed to target specifically urinary infection with a dosage of 100mg of PAC. Combined with herbal extracts known for their antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties, it is the perfect combination for the quick action and fast relief of UTI.

Microgranule technology improves the bioavailability of the formula with a controlled release and gastro protection of the actives.

Find out more about this product.

Related Articles

Sources:
[1] Avis de l’Afssa du 6 avril 2004, Saisine n°2003-SA-0352
[2] Howell AB, Foxman B. Cranberry Juice and Adhesion of Antibiotic-Resistant Uropathogens / JAMA (Journal of the American
     Medical Association) / volume:287 (page: 3082) June 19, 2002
[3] Kontiokari T, Sundqvist K, Nuutinen M, Pokka T, Koskela M, Uhari M. Randomised trial of cranberry-lingonberry juice and
     Lactobacillus GG drink for the prevention of urinary tract infections in women. BMJ. 2001;322:1571-1573
[4 Can J Urol, 2-Stothers, L. : A randomized trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost effectiveness of naturopathic cranberry
      products as prophylaxis against urinary tract infection in women. 2002 Jun;9(3):1558-62.
[5] Standardised high dose versus low dose cranberry Proanthocyanidin extracts for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in healthy women [PACCANN]: a double blind randomised controlled trial protocol | BMC Urology | Full Text

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Why Prebiotics & Probiotics together?

Why Prebiotics & Probiotics together?

The role of the intestine is not limited to the assimilation of nutrients and the elimination of waste, but it extends to the protection of the whole body. Indeed, it provides an effective preservation against bacteria, viruses, toxic and allergens in the intestinal lumen, through three defensive lines: the intestinal flora, intestinal epithelium, and the intestinal immune system.

Our intestines produce 70 to 85% of the immune cells of the organism and host 100 000 billion bacteria from 400 different species which compose the intestinal flora.

Among these bacteria, most are harmless or beneficial for the body. Under normal circumstances, other, potentially pathogenic, are too few to have an adverse effect. Indeed, by producing lactic acid, the “good” bacteria make the intestinal environment unfavorable to the development of pathogenic bacteria.

The bacteria of the intestinal flora feed on derived food unused by the body (fibers, cartilage, etc.) and play an important role:
– Digestion: The flora completes the food digestion by the fermentation process. It also participates to the digestive motility, in other words, the intestinal transit.
– Assimilation of nutrients.
– Elimination of waste: cholesterol uptake, elimination of toxic as ammonia, nitrites, etc.
– Barrier against infection: the bacteria of the intestinal flora stimulate macrophages and lymphocytes; these cells play a major role in the general immunity of our body.
But, any aggression to the intestinal flora can affect its balance and allow harmful bacteria to grow: stress, overuse of medication, unhealthy diet and/or low in fiber, infections, diseases, or
taking antibiotics.

The enteric nervous system

Studies conducted by Michael D. Gershon, a researcher at Columbia University, US, have shown that the enteric nervous system (intestinal), called also the second brains contains over 100 million neurons and secretes at least 20 neurotransmitters identical to those found in the brain. It participates in the management of our emotions and it is involved in pain control and regulation of thermoregulation, food, and sexual behavior, sleep-wake cycle, pain and anxiety.
In summary, our intestine is a key element for our health and mood. It is, therefore, important to maintain a rich and balanced intestinal flora.

Choose high-quality Probiotics and Prebiotics for a natural, fast and gentle action:

Four Probiotics to restore and balance the intestinal flora

Lactobacillus Rhamnosus
This bacterium has been the subject of considerable research. It is often used in dairy products in Finland and the US, where its virtues to enhance immunity are sought[2]:
– Lactobacillus rhamnosus protects against acute diarrhea[3] caused by viral gastroenteritis.
– Associated to Bifidobacterium longum, it proves a great efficiency to prevent turista – shown by numerous clinical[4] trials

– Associated with Bifidobacterium longum, it acts on the eradication of infections by the helical pylori – this latter being the cause of many gastritis and most peptic ulcers. In 2009, two meta-analyses have proven the effectiveness of probiotics to help cure this infection and mitigate its adverse effects[5,6].
– It improves the condition of people suffering from irritable bowel syndrome by alleviating pain, flatulence, bloating and regulating intestinal[7] transit.
– Lactobacillus rhamnosus reduces the protective layer in the intestines, especially in cases of alcohol[8] problems.
– It avoids complications due to taking an antibiotic[9] treatment.
– It has a powerful action on the vaginal infections, by intervening in the vaginal flora balance[10].
– Lactobacillus rhamnosus has significant impacts on anxiety and obesity by slowing the release of corticotropin-releasing hormones (CRH) that control the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrena axis[11].

Bifidobacterium Longum
Among the 400 species of bacteria of the intestinal flora, Bifidobacterium longum is one of the most common and most studied. It would constitute more than 95% of the intestinal flora of breastfed[12] infants, which would explain their greater resistance to infection.

Among its actions, it has been verified that:
– Associated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus, she proved great effectiveness to prevent the “turista” (see previous paragraph).
– Associated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus, it acts on the eradication of infections by the helico pylori (see previous paragraph).
– Bifidobacterium longum improves the condition of people suffering from irritable bowel syndrome[13].
– It relieves the symptoms of lactose intolerance[14].
– It calms the inflammation associated with Crohn’s disease or colitis.
– It prevents relapses of ulcerative colitis by extending remissions[15].
– Lactic acid produced by Bifidobacterium longum has anti-carcinogenic and anti-mutagenic properties. Studies have proven its effects on tumor[16].

Lactobacillus Acidophilus
This bacterium was isolated, in 1900, in the faeces of infants and named Bacillus acidophilus because of its remarkable tolerance to acidity.

It has many properties:
– A proven effectiveness in preventing diarrhea caused by antibiotics, in combination with Bifidobacterium longum.
– Lactobacillus acidiphilus specifically attenuates intestinal problems caused by anxiety[17].
– It has been proven it has an antagonistic activity against pathogens of food products such as Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens[18].
– It is known to have the ability to metabolize lactose in the small intestine and thus facilitate its digestion[19].
– It is anti-carcinogenic. An experiment conducted in rats shows a lower incidence of colon cancer after a period of 20 weeks, with the administration of the bacteria[20].
– It easily adheres to the wall of the intestine, which facilitates its implantation in a cure of probiotics[21].
– Finally, Bacillus acidophilus can treat or prevent vaginal infections. In 2009, researchers have compared the effectiveness of various treatments against bacterial vaginosis, one of the most common causes of vaginitis[22]. They concluded that the local use of lactobacilli is more effective than antibiotics prescribed orally (clindamycin, metronidazole).

Bifidobacterium Infantis
This strain of bacteria is acquired naturally during childbirth and then with breastfeeding[23], which would explain the greater resistance to infections in breastfed infants[24].
Irritable bowel syndrome is accompanied by a significant reduction in the amount of intraluminal bifidobacteria, with consequences such as colic gas production and impaired motility of the intestinal tract.
Ingesting a probiotic complement of the Bifidobacterium Infantis strain allows to re-seed good bacteria and to act effectively and without side effects for:
– Reduce pain due to irritable bowel syndrome. Indeed, it has been demonstrated, for example, that a complex of Bifidobacterium Infantis and Longum is associated with better control of intestinal pain and improves quality of life compared to placebo in children with SCI[25]
– Decrease “bloating” which is particularly difficult to treat and often categorized as the most intrusive symptom by those affected by SCI[26],
– Normalize intestinal transit and cause overall relief in patients with SCI,
– Act on the psychological factors of the SCI: Bifidobacterium Infantis is considered as a “psychobiotic”, with anti-inflammatory actions and a real ability to reduce the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which maintains the capacity of the organism to respond to acute and prolonged stressors. Results of large-scale placebo-controlled studies are expected[27]

Two Prebiotics to reinforce the action of the Probiotics

Lactobacillus Acidophilus
This bacterium was isolated, in 1900, in the faeces of infants and named Bacillus acidophilus because of its remarkable tolerance to acidity.

It has many properties:
– A proven effectiveness in preventing diarrhea caused by antibiotics, in combination with Bifidobacterium longum.
– Lactobacillus acidiphilus specifically attenuates intestinal problems caused by anxiety[17].
– It has been proven it has an antagonistic activity against pathogens of food products such as Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens[18].
– It is known to have the ability to metabolize lactose in the small intestine and thus facilitate its digestion[19].
– It is anti-carcinogenic. An experiment conducted in rats shows a lower incidence of colon cancer after a period of 20 weeks, with the administration of the bacteria[20].
– It easily adheres to the wall of the intestine, which facilitates its implantation in a cure of probiotics[21].
– Finally, Bacillus acidophilus can treat or prevent vaginal infections. In 2009, researchers have compared the effectiveness of various treatments against bacterial vaginosis, one of the most common causes of vaginitis[22]. They concluded that the local use of lactobacilli is more effective than antibiotics prescribed orally (clindamycin, metronidazole).

Ribose
Ribose is a sugar useful to all living organisms. It plays three major roles:
– It is a component of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the fuel of cell that meets the body’s energy needs.
– It has an action on the UTP (Uridine triphosphate): a compound that provides energy, helps the muscle recovery and promotes the synthesis of glycogen.
– It enables the production of ribonucleic acid (RNA) for the transcription of the genetic[33] code.

Ribose is therefore particularly important to stimulate all the body and reinforce the bacteria in the intestinal flora.
– It is composed of a studied mixture of three different Probiotics for further action and a full and rapid colonization of the intestine,
– To these Probiotics are associated two Prebiotics to reinforce their action, this complex contains strains recognized for their effectiveness and their complementary action,
– It reinforces the immune system,
– It improves the transit
– It restores the intestinal flora,
– It reduces the recurrence of vaginal mycoses,
– It helps to prevent the “turista” 15 days to 1 month before the trip,
– It avoids the undesirable effects of a long antibiotic therapy,
– The excellent tolerance achieved through the synergy of these components allows being used in the long term without side effects,
– It works by “Sustained release” to pass the gastric barrier,
– It is made from 100% natural active, with a “smart” formulation for a synergistic and effective action of the components,
– It is completely bioavailable,
Biocompatible, it respects the body and acts in depth on our vitality.

Sources:

[1] Haddad PS, Azar GA, et al. Natural health products, modulation of immune function and prevention of chronic diseases. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2005 Dec;2(4):513-20. Full text: http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org
[2]  Doctissimo.fr website accessed September 11, 2014 « Il y a probiotiques et probiotiques »
[3] Szajewska H, Mrukowicz JZ. Probiotics in the treatment and prevention of acute infectious diarrhea in infants and children: a systematic review of published randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2001 Oct;33 Suppl 2:S17-25.
[4] McFarland LV. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the prevention of traveler’s diarrhea. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2007 Mar;5(2):97-105. Epub 2005 Dec 5.
[5] Sachdeva A, Nagpal J. Effect of fermented milk-based probiotic preparations on Helicobacter pylori eradication: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Jan;21(1):45-53.
[6] Zou J, Dong J, Yu X. Meta-analysis: Lactobacillus containing quadruple t! herapy versus standard triple first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Helicobacter. 2009 Oct;14(5):97-107.
[7] Nikfar S, Rahimi R, et al. Efficacy of probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Dis Colon Rectum. 2008 Dec;51(12):1775-80. Epub 2008 May 9.
[8] Wang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Sidhu, A.; Ma, Z.; McClain, C.; Feng, W. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant ameliorates acute alcohol-induced intestinal permeability and liver injury. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 303 (1): G32–41. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00024.2012. PMID 22538402. Forsyth, CB.; Farhadi, A.; Jakate, SM.; Tang, Y.; Shaikh, M.; Keshavarzian, A. (Mar 2009). Lactobacillus GG treatment ameliorates alcohol-induced intestinal oxidative stress, gut leakiness, and liver injury in a rat model of alcoholic steatohepatitis. Alcohol 43 (2): 163–72. doi:10.1016/j.alcohol.2008.12.009. PMID 19251117.
[9] McFarland LV. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea and the treatment of Clostridium difficile disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006 Apr;101(4):812-22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16635227
[10] Oduyebo OO, Anorlu RI, Ogunsola FT. The effects of antimicrobial therapy on bacterial vaginosis in non-pregnant women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jul 8;(3):CD006055. Revi! ew. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19588379
[11] Alison C Bested, Alan C Logan, Eva M Selhub. Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and mental health: from Metchnikoff to modern advances: part III – convergence toward clinical trials. Gut Pathog. 2013; 5: 4. Published online 2013 March 16. doi: 10.1186/1757-4749-5-4 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3605358/
[12] Yoshioka H. et al., Development of the normal intestinal flora and its clinical significance in infants and children, Bifidobacteria and Microflora, 1991, 10(1): 11-17.
[13] Nikfar S, Rahimi R, et al. Efficacy of probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Dis Colon Rectum. 2008 Dec;51(12):1775-80. Epub 2008 May 9.
[14] He T1, Priebe MG, Zhong Y, Huang C, Harmsen HJ, Raangs GC, Antoine JM, Welling GW, Vonk RJ. Effects of yogurt and bifidobacteria supplementation on the colonic microbiota in lactose-intolerant subjects. J Appl Microbiol. 2008 Feb;104(2):595-604. Epub 2007 Oct 9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17927751.
[15] Sang LX, Chang B, et al. Remission induction and maintenance effect of probiotics on ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis. World JGastroenterol. 2010 Apr 21;16(15):1908-15. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20397271
[16] Benno, Y.; Mitsuoka, T. (1992). Impact of Bifidobacterium longum on human fecal microflora. Microbiology and immunology 36 (7): 683–694
[17] Diop L, Probiotic food supplement reduces stress-induced gastrointestinal symptoms in volunteers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, Nutr Res. 2008 Jan;28(1):1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2007.10.001
[18] M.E. Sanders, Invited Review: The Scientific Basis of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Functionality as a Probiotic, Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 84, no 2,‎ 2001-02, p. 319-331 ISSN 0022-0302, DOI 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74481-5
[19] R G Montes, Effect of milks inoculated with Lactobacillus acidophilus or a yogurt starter culture in lactose-maldigesting children, Journal of dairy science, vol. 78, no 8,‎ 1995-08, p. 1657-1664 (ISSN 0022-0302, DOI 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76790-X)
[20] B R Goldin, Alt! erations of the intestinal microflora by diet, oral antibiotics, and Lactobacillus: decreased production of free amines from aromatic nitro compounds, azo dyes, and glucuronides, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 73, no 3,‎ 1984-09, p. 689-695 (ISSN 0027-8874)
[21] Site de Opticbac Probiotics, What is acidophilus
[22] Oduyebo OO, Anorlu RI, Ogunsola FT. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jul. The effects of antimicrobial therapy on bacterial vaginosis in non-pregnant women. 8;(3):CD006055. Review.
[23] Mark A. Underwood, J. Bruce German, Carlito B. Lebrilla, David A. Mills. Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis: champion colonizer of the infant gut. Pediatr Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 March 5. Étude ici
[24] Yoshioka H. et al., Development of the normal intestinal flora and its clinical significance in infants and children, Bifidobacteria and Microflora, 1991, 10(1): 11-17.

[25] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27306945
[26] Nikfar 171

[27] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23759244
[28] Mao B, D Li, Zhao J, Liu X, Gu Z, Chen YQ, Zhang H, Chen W. Métagénomique Regards sur les Effets des fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) sur la composition du microbiote fécal chez la souris. J Agric Food Chem . 28 janvier 2015; 63 (3): 856-63. doi: 10.1021 / jf505156h. Epub 2015 le 17 janvier. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25598242
[29] Moro G, Minoli I, Mosca M et al. Dosage-related bifidogenic effects of galacto- and fructooligosaccharides in formula-fed term infants JPGN 2002; 34: 291–295
[30] Miller TL, Wolin MJ. Pathways of acetate, propionate, and butyrate formation by the human fecal microbial flora. Appl Environ Microbiol 1996; 62: 1589–92!
[31]1Bruno-Barcena JM, Azcarate-Peril MA. Galacto-oligosaccharides and Colorectal Cancer: Feeding our Intestinal Probiome. J Funct Foods. 2015 Jan;12:92-108. PMID: 25584074 [PubMed] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25584074
[32] Steer TE1, Johnson IT, Gee JM, Gibson GR. Metabolism of the soybean isoflavone glycoside genistin in vitro by human gut bacteria and the effect of prebiotics. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13129470
[33] Masantenaturelle.com website accessed September 11, 2014, une seconde vie grâce au Ribose

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